Morsly, Dalila (1985) La langue nationale: pouvoir des mots - pouvoir par les mots (National language: The power of words - power through words). In the modern days, the Berber language is considered to be a constitutional national language of such countries as Algeria and Morocco. In Batna in northeastern Algeria, however, a few schools use Arabic script. [12] Since modern Berber languages are relatively homogeneous, the date of the Proto-Berber language from which the modern group is derived was probably comparatively recent, comparable to the age of the Germanic or Romance subfamilies. The feminine Tamazight traditionally referred specifically to the Riffian and Central Atlas Tamazight languages. The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria.A very sparse population extends into the whole Sahara and the northern part of the Sahel. These are generally similar to dialects spoken in adjacent areas of Morocco and Tunisia. Algeria adopted Berber as a national language earlier than Morocco in 2002. Algeria recently celebrated its 50th anniversary, but for those who are not Arab, repression continues. Morocco and Algeria After independence from France, all Maghreb countries pursued a policy of Arabization in an attempt to replace the hitherto dominant French with Arabic, and to marginalize, or even eradicate minority Berber languages.As a result, until the early 1990s, Berber was excluded from all official use, as well as from all education. [citation needed]. Large Berber-speaking migrant communities, today numbering about 4 million, have been living in Western Europe, spanning over three generations, since the 1950s. "[7] The PCGN stated that French, not Arabic, is the actual lingua franca of Algeria. In 1985 an end was put to bilingual education at all levels, while President Chadli officially barred Algerian nationals from attending all-French schools; yet the elite and the powerful, most often educated in French, continued to send their[...]", Benrabah, Mohamed "Language-in-Education Planning in Algeria: Historical Development and Current Issues", p. 232, Benrabah, Mohamed "Language-in-Education Planning in Algeria: Historical Development and Current Issues", p. 232-233, Benrabah, Mohamed "Language-in-Education Planning in Algeria: Historical Development and Current Issues", p. 228, Benrabah, Mohamed "Language-in-Education Planning in Algeria: Historical Development and Current Issues", p. 227, Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, International Journal of Francophone Studies, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-35515769, "Algérie: Situation géographique et démolinguistique", The Syndrome of the French Language in Algeria, International Journal of Arts and Sciences, ALGERIA Language & Toponymy How politically driven language policies have impeded toponymic progress, « Loi n° 02-03 portant révision constitutionnelle », "Beni-Snous: Two unrelated phonetic forms for every noun? Ethnologue provides a useful academic starting point; however, its bibliographic references are very inadequate, and it rates its own accuracy at only B-C for the area. "[6], Algerian Arabic is the language of 73% of Algeria's population according to which study ?. "[6] Due to the number of languages and complexity involving those languages, Maamri argued that "[t]oday the linguistic situation in Algeria is dominated by multiple discourses and positions. In contrast, the split of the group from the other Afroasiatic sub-phyla is much earlier, and is therefore sometimes associated with the local Mesolithic Capsian culture. While the first TV programmes in Berber language were launched in January 2010 and Berber teaching soon may become universal, Berber activists still hold government is working against them. Benrabah "Language maintenance and spread: French in Algeria", p. 194-195. Mohamed Benrabah, author of "Language-in-Education Planning in Algeria: Historical Development and Current Issues", said "Most of these teachers turned out to be unqualified for teaching and totally ignorant of the Algerian social reality" and that "Their spoken Egyptian Arabic was incomprehensible to Algerians in general and Tamazight-speaking populations in particular and their traditional pedagogy (learning by rote and class recitation, physical punishment and so on) proved inadequate". According to Peter Behrens and Marianne Bechaus-Gerst, linguistic evidence suggests that the peoples of the C-Group culture in present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan spoke Berber languages. Adding up the population (according to the official census of 2004) of the Berber-speaking regions as shown on a 1973 map from the CIA results in at least 10 million speakers, not counting the numerous Berber population which lives outside these regions in the bigger cities. Contes berbéres chaouis de l’Aurès, d’après Gustave Mercier. Over 60% of university students in Algeria are educated in French. In Language Conflict in Algeria , Mohamed Benrabah surveys nearly two centuries’ worth of language politics and linguistic culture in Algeria, from the eve of the Malika Rebai Maamri, author of "The Syndrome of the French Language in Algeria," said "The language spoken at home and in the street remains a mixture of Algerian dialect and French words. The Berber Latin alphabet was also used by most European and Berber linguists during the 19th and 20th centuries.[5]. Otherwise there is consensus on the outlines of the family: The various classifications differ primarily in what they consider to be Eastern Berber, and in how many varieties they recognise as distinct languages. The government laws called for a fine for officials who prepared government documents not in Arabic. There are also some Kabyle speakers in France, Belgium, the USA and a number of other countries. The now extinct Guanche language spoken on the Canary Islands by the Guanches, as well as possibly the languages of the ancient C-Group culture in today's southern Egypt and northern Sudan, are believed to have belonged to the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. The implied tree is: Ethnologue, mostly following Aikhenvald and Militarev (1991), treats the eastern varieties differently: Blench (ms, 2006) has the following classification:[44], The Berber languages have influenced Maghrebi Arabic languages, such as Moroccan, Algerian, Libyan and Tunisian Arabic. The official languages of Algeria are Arabic and Tamazight (Berber),[2] as specified in its constitution since 1963 for the former and since 2016 for the latter. The primary difficulty of subclassification, however, lies in the eastern Berber languages, where there is little agreement. Morocco recognised Mohamed Benrabah, author of "Language maintenance and spread: French in Algeria," said that as of 2007, "Arabization is either complete or almost complete" in the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Religious Affairs and registry offices in Algerian town halls. Réflexion sur le statut de la langue française en Algérie" (Foreign language: A reflection on the status of the French language in Algeria). "Algeria's other 'civil war' - on the French language.". Kossmann explains how the Arabic conquests from the 7th century onwards caused Berber to become a minority language. This is the answer to the clue : Berber language spoken in the Northeast of Algeria CodyCross. [22] Benrabah said that as of 2007 "the use of French in a number of higher domains has diminished since the colonial era when the language held an unassailable position in the media, education, government, and administration. The Role of Moroccan Women in Preserving Amazigh Language and Culture. Phoenician, particularly in its North African Punic form, was brought to Algeria by Carthage's influence, it was an influential language in the region ; Augustine learned it, and quotes occasional phrases. According to Peter Behrens (1981) and Marianne Bechaus-Gerst (2000), linguistic evidence suggests that the peoples of the C-Group culture in present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan spoke Berber languages. This policy of exclusion pushed many Berber writers, journalists, academics, and scholars to found the Berber Academy in 1966, later renamed the Berber Assembly. [30] The Algiers French lycée moved from one neighbourhood to another. The oldest dated inscription is from the 3rd century BCE. [10], One group, the Linguasphere Observatory, has attempted to introduce the neologism "Tamazic languages" to refer to the Berber languages. In February, 2016, a constitutional resolution was passed making Berber an official language alongside Arabic. The official languages of Algeria are Arabic and Tamazight (Berber), as specified in its constitution since 1963 for the former and since 2016 for the latter. Berber, any of the descendants of the pre-Arab inhabitants of North Africa. This state of affairs has been contested by Berbers in Morocco and Algeria—especially Kabylie—and was addressed in both countries by affording the language official status and introducing it in some schools. Many in the south also have Berber as their first language. [18] Algeria is the second largest Francophone country in the world in terms of speakers. The Berbers live in scattered communities across Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mali, Niger, and Mauritania. Wikipedia In other Berber-speaking areas, this name was lost. The Latin word is also found in the Arabic designation for these populations, البربر (al-Barbar); see Names of the Berber people. [17], Following the spread of Islam, some Berber scholars also utilised the Arabic script. Kabyle, the most spoken Berber language in the country, is taught and partially co-official (with a few restrictions) in parts of Kabylie. [24] When it was nationalized it served members of the educational, military, and political elites. It included Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and the western portion of Libya.). Berber communities in Algeria are calling on the government to allocate state funding to promote and preserve their indigenous language, a demand that … Five demonstrators who brandished a Berber flag during recent Algerian anti-government demonstrations accused of “undermining national unity” were acquitted in … Morocco is a country with several competing linguistically different languages, including French, Modern Standard Arabic, Moroccan Arabic and Amazigh. [17] The Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN) states "In reality, French is the lingua franca of Algeria",[7] and that despite government efforts to remove French, it has never ceased being the lingua franca. Recently, schools have begun to incorporate French into the curriculum as early as children are taught written classical Arabic. (See related story “In Algeria, the Berber Language … [28] In 1963 the government recruited 1,000 Egyptians as Arabic teachers. But first we need to know what Tamazight is the standardized version of the Amazigh languages. The division of Moroccan Berber languages into three groups, as used by Ethnologue, is common in linguistic publications, but is significantly complicated by the presence of local differences: Shilha is subdivided into Shilha of the Draa River valley, Tasusit (the language of the Souss) and several other mountain languages. It was borrowed from Latin barbari. This even though in Algeria, counting the Kabyle, Mzab, Chaoui, Touareg and 13 other ethnic groups, the Berber make up around one-third of the population. A statement issued by President Abdelaziz Bouteflika said that a constitutional amendment will be drawn up instituting the change. The 1963 constitution and the 1976 constitution do not mention Berber and French. [31] After Chadli's decree, the school had a secret program which placed higher emphasis on French than other Algerian secondary schools did. Algerians mostly use the Berber Latin alphabet in Berber-language education at public schools, while Tifinagh is mostly used for artistic symbolism. [11] And in 2016 Berber was recognized as a second official language of Algeria. In Algeria, as elsewhere, spoken Arabic differs very substantially from written Arabic; Algerian Arabic has a much-simplified vowel system, a substantially changed vocabulary and does not have the case endings of the written Arabic. That led the Government to invite Indians to teach the language in Algerian universities in 2012. Berber Phrases Learning the Berber Phrases is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. According to the Algerian envoy to India, only five percent of the population are able to speak "good English"[clarification needed]. [citation needed] Malika Rebai Mammri, author of "The Syndrome of the French Language in Algeria," said "French continues to be the dominant language in business and professional circles" and that "certain aspects of formal education and research are still carried in the French language and a great part of the economic and industrial sectors and press still use French extensively. They are spoken in five major dialects in many parts of the territory, but mainly in Kabylia, in the Awras, and in the Algerian Sahara desert (by Algerian Tuaregs). CodyCross is a new take on the crossword puzzle, or as the authors call it, "A word game from out of this world!". Benrabah "Language maintenance and spread: French in Algeria", p. 195. Languages: Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq) Government National statistics office Mali and Niger recognise a Tuareg Berber Latin alphabet customised to the Tuareg phonological system. [14], Additionally, historical linguistics indicate that the Guanche language, which was spoken on the Canary Islands by the ancient Guanches, likely belonged to the Berber branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. The reforms were intended to be implemented in September 2001 but the Ministry of the Interior suspended them on 3 September 2001. In Algeria, Islamists defend Arabic as the dominant language, pointing out that it is the language of the Quran. [36], Languages used in the Algerian government, History of languages in Algerian education, Cohn, Martin Regg. The Berber languages and dialects have had a written tradition, on and off, for about 2,500 years, although the tradition has been frequently disrupted by cultural shifts and invasions. Although the Maghrib has been, for the most part, "Arabized" by language and Islamic culture over the centuries, there are still groups of Berbers, like the nine Saharan Berber tribes, who have retained much of their original Berber traditions and characteristics. Berber became a constitutional national language of Algeria in 2001, and a constitutionally official language of Morocco in 2011. Each world has more than 20 groups with 5 puzzles each. It included Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and the western portion of Libya.). ", Benrabah, Mohamed. Martin Regg Cohn of the Toronto Star said that many of the instructors were unqualified. "[22] Official documents of ministries which had not been affected partially or fully to Arabization are often written in French, and Arabic translations of these documents are provided when needed. [7] French and Berber are the two languages commonly used in the Kabylie region. [31] The Algerian government, in 1988, officially prohibited Algerian nationals and children of mixed Algerian and French people from attending "French Mission of Algeria" schools. The number of Berber people is much higher than the number of Berber speakers. Algerian Arabic does not necessarily stem from written Arabic. [31] Since most young Algerians had a poor command of French and were in Arabized school streams, they enrolled in Arabic-language university departments such as Islamic law and Arabic literature and were exposed to Islamist point of views. According to a conservative estimate, there are curently more than 20 million speakers of Berber in the world. European languages distinguish between the words "Berber" and "barbarian", while Arabic has the same word al-Barbari for both meanings. In 1990, Berbers in Kabylie staged a strike that included a boycott of classes by schoolchildren, leading to the cancellation of the school year and forcing authorities to approve the teaching of Berber language in Berber-majority areas. Lafkioui, Mena B., and Daniela Merolla. Moreover, linguistic boundaries are blurred, such that certain languages cannot accurately be described as either Central Morocco Tamazight (spoken in the central and eastern Atlas area) or Shilha. In Algeria, the Arabization and the rise of Islamist movements caused violent protests, which led to the constitutional recognition of Berber as a national language in 2002. Berber is spoken by large populations of Morocco, Algeria and Libya, by smaller populations of Tunisia, northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso and Mauritania and in the Siwa Oasis of Egypt. The Berber languages are considered the native language of Algeria since antiquity. The term Berber has been used in Europe since at least the 17th century and is still used today. Most Jews of Algeria once spoke dialects of Arabic specific to their community, collectively termed Judeo-Arabic. [12] Since modern Berber languages are relatively homogeneous, the date of the Proto-Berber language from which the modern group is derived was probably comparatively recent, comparable to the age of the Germanic or Romance subfamilies. Non-native speakers learn Literary Arabic at school, and as such a relative majority of the population understands Standard Arabic or the Algerian Arabic dialect. But first we need to know what the role of Phrases is in the structure of the grammar in Berber. The laws also stated that all television broadcasts must be in Arabic only. Brett, Michael; & Fentress, Elizabeth (1997). [citation needed][citation needed]Moroccan linguist Mohamed Chafik claims[weasel words] that 80 percent of Moroccans are Berbers. [5], The 1963 constitution of Algeria made Arabic the official language, and this was retained in the 1976 constitution. The exact population of Berber speakers is hard to ascertain, since most North African countries do not record language data in their censuses. They were first written in the Libyco-Berber abjad, which is still used today by the Tuareg in the form of Tifinagh. [20] On 17 June 2011 King Mohammed VI announced in a speech of new constitutional reform that "Tamazight" became an official language of Morocco alongside Arabic and will be used in all the administrations in the future. 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